DevOps, In simple language, refers to a combination of practices, tools, and cultural philosophy that heightens an organization’s ability to deliver services at high speed. DevOps causes two teams to collaborate to achieve common goals. The members of both sides work passionately to improve the automated production of codes at a fast pace.
DevOps engineers need to face a sturdy interview board. If you thinking about how to prepare for devops job interview then knowledge of DevOps is a guarantee for a lucrative salary.
Now, it would be helpful for DevOps candidates if they have an overview of the questions that they might face in a DevOps interview and azure devops interview questions. They could check out the comprehensive list given below to help crack devops interview
General DevOps Interview Questions
1.Why is DevOps necessary?
Your answer must be simple and straightforward. Begin by explaining the growing importance of DevOps in the IT industry. Many companies need —
- Faster mean time to recover if a new release collapse.
- The lower failure rate in case of new releases
- Increase the frequency of deployment
- The shortened lead between fixes
DevOps takes care of all these requirements. It helps to provide a seamless software delivery. For example, companies like Google have used DevOps to reach a production level that they couldn’t imagine a few years earlier.
2.What are the fundamental differences between Agile and DevOps?
The Agile process is also more ideally suited for complex projects, while the DevOps method is more suitable for end-to-end processes.
3.What are the essential technical benefits of using DevOps?
A few technical benefits of using DevOps are as follows:
It provides resolutions faster.
It offers fewer complex problems.
Its software delivery is continuous.
4.Name some essential DevOps tools?
A few necessary DevOps tools are as follows:
5.Which of the tools mentioned above have you used?
I have worked with all the DevOps tools as mentioned earlier to develop premium quality software. As well as devops goal is to speed up time to deliver.
6.What are the business benefits of DevOps?
The business benefits of DevOps are as follows:
- It offers a stable operating environment.
- It delivers features faster.
- It provides more time to add values.
7.What is CI? What is the purpose of CI?
DevOps is also known as CI. In DevOps, the full form of CI is Continuous integration. It is a development practice, in which the developers integrate code in a shared repository many times a day.
The purposes of CI are as follows:
- CI improves the quality of software.
- It reduces the total time for delivery.
It involves a set of unit, regression, and integration tests. These tests run every time the compilation succeeds. If any of these tests fail, the CI build is considered to be unstable and not broken.
8.Which KPIs are used to measure of success of DevOps?
The full form of KPIs is Key Parameter Indicators. Some of the most popular KPIs to indicate the measure the success of DevOps is as follows:
- The pass percentage of the automated tests
- Error rate
- Frequency of deployment
- Deployment time
- Change volume
- Application performance
- Application usage
9.What is meant by shift left in DevOps?
When the traditional software development lifecycle is graphed on paper, it has two sides- right and left. The right side of the graph includes production staging, stress testing, and user acceptance. The left side provides development and design. To shift left in dev sec ops means to take many tasks on its right
The most critical ways of shifting left in DevOps are as follows:
- Including static code analysis at routines in every build
- They are creating artifacts that are ready for production at the end of every Agile sprint.
10.What do you mean by Puppets in DevOps?
Puppet is a configuration management tool used for automated administration tasks. It simplifies redundant tasks like configuring, deploying, and managing servers. It does dynamic scaling of machines. Also, it defines distinct configurations for every host.
11.Why do DevOps companies use Selenium?
12.What do you mean by CAMS in DevOps?
CAMS is an acronym in DevOps, which stands for
It is used to describe the basic needs of DevOps technology.
13.What do you mean by VCS? Explain its details.
The full form of VCS is a Version Control System. It can record changes that are made to a file or a group of data with time. Example: Git and Mercurial.
The uses of VCS are as follows:
- It compares the changes made over time.
- It identifies who introduces a new issue and when.
- It checks the last modification, which caused a problem.
- It reverts a complete project to an earlier state.
- It reverts some files to an earlier state.
14.What do you think are the most important benefits of implementing DevOps automation?
The most important benefits of implementing DevOps automation are as follows:
- It becomes easier to identify and rectify errors while performing predictable and repeated tasks.
- It removes the chances of any human error from the CD equation.
- It removes bottlenecks from the CD pipeline.
15.How will you explain post mortem meetings?
Often, it becomes necessary to discuss what went wrong during a DevOps process. Post mortem meetings are arranged for that. These meetings figure out steps to rectify an error that has happened or will happen in the future.
16.What are the core operations of DevOps in terms of infrastructure and development?
The core operations of DevOps in terms of development and infrastructure are as follows:
- Application Development: A product that can meet all customer requirements and offers superior quality needs to be developed.
- Code development: It prepares the codebase needed for product development.
- Unit testing: It is meant for testing the individual components.
- Covering the code: It is a measurement of the total number of blocks of the system.
- Configuration: It allows the product to be used in an optimum way.
- Deployment: It installs the software that the end-user will use.
- Orchestration: It arranges several automated racks
17.Which method does DevOps use?
DevOps uses an Agile methodology.
18.Can Jenkins be moved or copied from one server to another?
Jenkins can be copied or moved from one server to another. E.g., We may copy the existing Jenkins jobs from the old server to the new server. So, it may be moved from one server to another by copying It to the corresponding directory.
19.What is Ansible work in DevOps?
An open-source automation tool used in DevOps is known as Ansible work.
20.What are the priorities in DevOps?
The priorities in DevOps are as follows:
- Resource management
21.What is Git?
Git is a popular DevOps tool.
22.How can a commitment that has already been pushed and made public be reverted?
There are two ways of reverting a commitment that has already been pushed and made public. The methods are as follows:
It creates a new commit-. The latest commit undoes all the changes that have been pushed and made public by the previous commitment.
The corrupt file in a new commitment is fixed or removed or fixed in a new commit. Then, it is pushed to the remote repository.
23.What is the basic premise of DevOps?
DevOps basic premise is that it is a cultural shift, where the operations team works simultaneously with the collaborations team throughout the lifecycle of a project.
24.Can merge conflict in GIT be handled? If yes, then how?
Yes, we can handle the merge conflict in GIT. We can use the GIT status to check everything. It helps us develop a clear understanding. The merge tool is applied to mark and clean up the conflict. Commit and merging are done using the current branch and the master branch.
25.Explain Git rebase?
A command designed to integrate changes from one base to another is known as Git rebase.
26.Differentiate between Git rebase, and Git merge?
Git rebases different from Git merge. The differences are as follows:
In Git rebase, the feature branch is transferred from the ending point of master data. In Git merge, the merging adds to a new commit. The history remains unchanged, but the master branch changes.
27.How can Jenkins be secured?
Jenkins may be secured in the following ways:
- To apply security audits regularly.
- Ensuring the product matrix is turned on.
- To restrict physical access to Jenkins data.
- To ensure that global security is on.
- To check whether Jenkins is integrated.
- DevOps extensively uses the tool, Jenkins.
28.How many categories of Ansible are there in DevOps? What are they?
There are two categories of Ansible in DevOps. They are as follows:
- Controlling machines
29.What are the benefits of Git?
The benefits of Git are as follows:
- It helps to prevent redundant data and to replicate data.
- It is used for multiple projects.
- It offers higher network performance.
- It supports the utilization of disk.
- Supports collaboration
- It offers one Git directory for every repository.
30.Explain Forking workflow?
Forking workflow gives the service side repositories to each developer. Thus, it serves open-source projects.
31.Why is Forking Workflow better than Git workflow?
Forking Workflow helps to integrate the contribution of different developers. It doesn’t require everybody to push to an individual, centralized repository to clean product history. The developers may push their server-side repositories. So, it is better than Git workflow.
32.What factors make CI successful?
Certain factors contribute to the success of CI (which stands for continuous integration). The elements are as follows:
- Enables the build to conduct self-testing
- It simplifies getting the latest deliverables.
- It deploys automatically
- The results of the automatic build are visible to all.
- A code repository is maintained.
- The tests are conducted in a clone of the production environment
33.How does infrastructure as a code fit into devops methodology?
Infrastructure as code is a kind of IT infrastructure. The operations team may use it to manage and provision through the system automatically. Companies that deploy faster treat the foundation as code that may be utilized through DevOps technology.
Chef is a powerful automation platform. It transforms infrastructure into code.
35.How is a cookbook different from a recipe in a chef?
Mainly, it configures a package or infrastructure. A cookbook gathers recipes in a which is more manageable than having only methods.
36.What is Nagios?
Nagios is a monitoring system. In a DevOps culture, Nagios is used to monitor systems, business processes, and services. In case a technical failure happens, Nagios notifies the professional staff about the issue. So, they can start rectifying the process. The person who uses Nagios doesn’t need to explain why the outage of an unseen infrastructure affects an organization’s bottom line.
37.How is Nagios helpful?
The advantages of Nagios are mentioned below:
- It coordinates the responses of the technical team.
- It automatically fixes the problems which are diagnosed.
- It responds to the issues as soon as the problems are diagnosed.
- It has plans for upgrading the infrastructure before an obsolete problem causes issues.
- It ensures the SLA of the organization is met.
- It ensures the IT infrastructure outages have minimum impact on the bottom line of the organization.
38.What do you mean by Plugins in Nagios?
Scripts that may run from a command line to check a service or host status are known as plugins in Nagios. E.g., Shell scripts and Perl scripts.
Whenever the need to check a host or server arises, Nagios executes a Plugin. The Plugin simply runs the check and returns the outcome of the test to Nagios. In return, Nagios uses the result from the Plugin to check the current status of services and hosts on the network.
39.What do you mean when you say that Nagios is object-oriented?
Object configuration format is a feature of Nagios. In it, people may create object definitions that inherit properties from the descriptions of other objects. It simplifies the relationship between different objects.
40.What are resources in Chef?
A piece of infrastructure and its desired state, such as a running service, is known as a resource. The functions of the resource are as follows:
- It describes the desired state for a configuration item.
- It declares the necessary steps to bring the item to its desired state.
- It lists additional details as necessary. These further details are also known as resource properties.
41.What role does Facter play in Puppet?
Facter accumulates necessary information regarding Puppet agent, like network settings, type and version of OS, hardware details, and IP addresses. Then, the facts are made available as variables in the Puppet Master’s Manifests.
42.How can you explain the architecture of Chef?
The architecture of Chef is mentioned below:
Chef Server: It stores the required data for configuring the nodes. It also provides a search. A search is a powerful tool that allows the user to drive node configurations based on data dynamically.
Chef Node: A host that uses Chef-client to be configured is known as Node. A chef node contacts the chef server to get the required information to configure the nodes. Chef client runs on the nodes.
Chef Workstation: The host that a user uses to modify the cookbooks and other configuration data.
43.What do you mean by playbooks in Ansible?
The configuration, deployment, and orchestration language of Ansible are known as a playbook. It is designed so that humans can read it and develop them into a primary text language. A playbook may manage configurations of remote machines and deployments to remote devices, at the fundamental level.
44.Explain Active and Passive check in Nagios?
Passive checks are initiated and performed by external applications or processes. The results of the passive examination are submitted to Nagios for processing. On the other hand, Nagios initiates and performs active checks.
Active checks run according to a daily schedule. Passive tests cannot be monitored effectively according to a regular schedule. It is because the passive checks are located behind a firewall. So, the monitoring host cannot check them actively.
45.How will you approach a project where the application of DevOps is necessary?
A project where DevOps needs to be applied needs to be approached according to stages. The different stages are as follows:
The existing process is assessed and implemented for two or three weeks.
A proof of concept is created. Once it receives the green signal, the team may roll out the plan of implementation.
Now, Devops is ready to implement this process.
46.What role does AWS play in DevOps?
AWS devops provides flexible and ready to use services. It supports a vast ecosystem of partners. There is no need to install the software.
The questions discussed above are a few samples. Multinational companies, like Accenture, Amdocs, and IBM, frequently have multiple open positions for DevOps engineers. It is of prime importance for DevOps engineers to have profound knowledge of the tools and processes. They also need to update their knowledge from time to time.
As a DevOps Engineer, in-depth knowledge of processes, tools, and relevant technology is essential. Refer the essential material AWS interview questions, data science vs big data to upgrade your knowledge and become more confident while devops solutions, python for devops, ansible for devops, cloud devops , devops framework for devops interview questions and answers for experienced interview process.